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These jars, together with other isolated finds at Giza, have been interpreted as evidence for a Ma'adi-period settlement at Giza that was destroyed when the 4th Dynasty pyramids were built In the mid 1970's, Karl Kromer, investigated one such area of debris, approximately one kilometre south of the Great Pyramid. Archaeologists have found mentions of Hemiunu with titles roughly translated as Master of works and Vizier.

(48) Within the fill, Kromer reported finds from the Late Pre-dynastic, 1st, 2nd and 4th Dynasties. His tomb lies close to Khufu's pyramid, and contains reliefs of his image.

A second dating in 1995 with new but similar material obtained dates ranging between 100-400 years earlier than those indicated by the historic record.

This raised interesting questions concerning the origin and date of the wood.

If they were separate kings, While there is little debate at present over who built the pyramids, there is a visible change in the design and quality between the the first dynasty and the fourth (Such as Flat sided pyramids, Cardinal orientation, Polar passages, Lack of adornment and funerary remains).

The combination of these particular construction features have no precedent in Egypt and it is worth looking at the source of the historical record which suggests an immigration into Egypt at this time of a people as yet unidentified beyond their title of 'Shepherd Folk'.

Massive quantities of wood were used and burned, so to reconcile the earlier dates the authors of the study theorize that possibly "old wood" was used, assuming that wood was harvested from any source available, including old construction material from all over Egypt.

This yielded results averaging 374 years earlier than the date accepted by egyptologists but much more recent than 10,000 years ago.The authors insist more evidence is need to settle this issue.This study does not sufficiently address key anomalies in its findings, however - mainly how and where the Egyptians were able to obtain literally tons of 100-400 year old dead wood.Project scientists based their conclusions on the evidence that some of the material in the 3rd Dynasty pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser and other monuments had been recycled, concluding that the construction of the pyramids marked a a major depletion of Egypt's exploitable wood.Dating of more short-lived material around the pyramid (cloth, small fires, etc) yielded dates nearer to those indicated by historical records.Even preserved in a desert climate, finding forests of such magnitude comprised of ancient dead wood would be a phenomenon in and of itself.

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