Land consolidation is a planned readjustment and rearrangement of land parcels and their ownership.
It is usually applied to form larger and more rational land holdings.
Land was usually restituted to the elderly, or in joint ownership to a group of heirs of an original owner.
Restitution also established a large group of absentee owners residing in urban areas who have little or no involvement with farming or the rural economy.
Environmental degradation has sometimes increased during the transition period, for example through the deforestation of valuable species, inappropriate tillage of soils and a failure to maintain a balance of nutrients in the topsoil.
Production centres were often placed in the heart of villages with adverse ecological impacts.
There is growing inequality between rural and urban areas, with most of the poor now living in rural areas.
These areas are characterised by declining populations that are increasingly represented by women and the elderly.
Daily food consumption is based to a large extent on a households own production.
For many farmers, their strategy is one of trying to survive with no clear vision of how to advance.
In other cases, the principle of equity applied in decollectivisation programs resulted in households receiving several parcels of different qualities of arable land, a portion of the vineyard, and of the orchard.