The contemporary revival of Taíno identity is partially based on the survival of Taíno highland communities.
Although the Spanish introduced slavery to replace a dwindling Taíno labor force, slavery never reached large proportions until the plantation system was fully implemented in the nineteenth century.
Puerto Rican Spanish is a dialect of standard Spanish that has its own particularities.
The influence of Taíno is evident in descriptions of material objects ("hammock" and "tobacco"), natural phenomena ("hurricane"), place names and colloquialisms.
Then estimated at thirty thousand, they were reduced to two thousand by the seventeenth century through exploitative labor, disease, native uprisings, and emigration to the other islands.
But many fled into the highlands or intermarried: Spanish immigration to the island was mostly male and interracial relations less stigmatizing than among Anglo settlers.
Americans, Cubans, and Dominicans tend to consider their presence in Puerto Rico temporary. Spanish and English are the official languages, but Puerto Rico is overwhelmingly Spanish speaking, despite government efforts to eradicate Spanish or foster bilingualism.The tropical island ecosystem is unique and diversified in spite of industrialization and urban sprawl.Beside Mona, the government has established several other nature reserves.Mona is a nature reserve and wildlife refuge under government jurisdiction.The total land area, including the smaller islands, is 3,427 square miles (8,875 square kilometers).In 1519 Caparra had to be relocated to a nearby coastal islet with a healthier environment; it was renamed Puerto Rico ("Rich Port") for its harbor, among the world's best natural bays.