In 1866, as most of Central Asia was occupied by Russian Empire, the city became part of the General Governorate of Turkestan, under Tsarist Russia.
The threat of forced conscription during World War I led to protests in the city in July 1916, which turned violent when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers.
Residents pay for their water supply, which in turn helps Khujand's municipal water company to continue to renovate and improve their services.
The project is in its third stage of development, and should be completed by 2017.
In the 14th century, the city was part of the Chagatai Khanate until it was incorporated into the Timurid Dynasty' in the late 14th century, under which it flourished greatly.
The Shaybanid dynasty of Bukhara next annexed Khojand, until it was taken over by the Kokand Khanate in 1802, however Bukhara regained it in 1842 until it was lost a few decades later to the Russia.
It also became a cultural hub and several famous poets and scientists came from this city.
The city would form a bastion for the Greek settlers against the nomadic Scythian tribes who lived north of the Syr Darya River.
As of December 2014 the construction of highway between capital and Khujand has been carrying on.
Necessary works like cementation and installation of ventilation equipment are still going on inside the Istiqlol Tunnel, after specialists from the ministry detected an error while analyzing the 40-million-U. The 5-km tunnel, located 80 km northwest of Dushanbe and built with assistance from Iran, is also a transit route between Dushanbe and the Uzbek capital of Tashkent.
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The city was renamed Leninabad on 10 January 1936 and it remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991.