With sensitive instrumentation, this range can be extended to 70,000 years.In addition to the radiocarbon dating technique, scientists have developed other dating methods based on the transformation of one element into another.By measuring the amount of original and transformed atoms in an object, scientists can determine the age of that object.Cosmic rays: Invisible, high-energy particles that constantly bombard Earth from all directions in space.The nucleus of every radioactive element (such as radium and uranium) spontaneously disintegrates over time, transforming itself into the nucleus of an atom of a different element.
When a piece of pottery is heated in a laboratory at temperatures more than 930°F (500°C), electrons from quartz and other minerals in the pottery clay emit light.
The older the pottery, the brighter the light that will be emitted.
Using thermoluminescence, pottery pieces as old as 100,000 years can be dated with precision. Known as dendrochronology (pronounced den-dro-crow-NOL-o-gee), tree-ring dating is based on the fact that trees produce one growth ring each year.
Eventually, the entire ecosystem (community of plants and animals) of the planet, including humans, is filled with a concentration of carbon-14.
As long as an organism is alive, the supply of carbon-14 is replenished.
When carbon-14 falls to Earth, it is absorbed by plants.