2257 Record-Keeping Requirements Compliance Statement All models are at least 18 years old.
are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
A more frequent schedule may be desirable in order to maintain a more constant level of hormone in the system.
Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscle, not into the vein, to avoid sudden changes in the amount of the drug in the bloodstream.
There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses.
Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes.
These can broadly be grouped into anabolic, androgenic, and other uses.
Studies in the United States have shown that AAS users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes and use the drugs for cosmetic purposes.
These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage (mainly with most oral AAS), and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart.
It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high-school students in the U. There are four common forms in which AAS are administered: oral pills; injectable steroids; creams/gels for topical application; and skin patches. Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted to inactive metabolites, and only about one-sixth is available in active form.
In order to be sufficiently active when given by mouth, testosterone derivatives are alkylated at the 17α position, e.g. This modification reduces the liver's ability to break down these compounds before they reach the systemic circulation.
Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive.
Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed.
Ergogenic uses for AAS in sports, racing, and bodybuilding as performance-enhancing drugs are controversial because of their adverse effects and the potential to gain unfair advantage in physical competitions.